Tuesday, March 14, 2017

Stingray Renderer Walkthrough #8: stingray-renderer & mini-renderer

Stingray Renderer Walkthrough #8: stingray-renderer & mini-renderer

Introduction

In the last post we looked at our systems for doing data-driven rendering in Stingray. Today I will go through the two default rendering pipes we ship as templates with Stingray. Both are entirely described in data using two render_config files and a bunch of shader_source files.

We call them the “stingray renderer” and the “mini renderer”

Stingray Renderer

The “stingray renderer” is the default rendering pipe and is used in almost all template and sample projects. It’s a fairly standard “high-end” real-time rendering pipe and supports the regular buzzword features.

The render_config file is approx 1500 lines of sjson. While 1500 might sound a bit massive it’s important to remember that this configuration is highly configurable, pretty much all features can be dynamically switched on/off. It also run on a broad variety of different platforms (mobile -> consoles -> high-end PC), supports a bunch of different debug visualization modes, and features four different stereo rendering paths in addition to the default mono path.

If you are interested in taking a closer look at the actual implementation you can download stingray and you’ll find it under core/stingray_renderer/renderer.render_config.

Going through the entire file and all the implementation details would require multiple blog posts, instead I will try to do a high-level break down of the default layer_configuration and talk a bit about the feature set. Before we begin, please keep in mind that this rendering pipe is designed to handle lots of different content and run on lots of different platforms. A game project would typically use it as a base and then extend, optimize and simplify it based on the project specific knowledge of the content and target platforms.

Here’s a somewhat simplified dump of the contents of the layer_configs/default array found in core/stingray_renderer/renderer.render_config in Stingray v1.8:

// run any render_config_extensions that have requested to insert work at the insertion point named "first"
{ extension_insertion_point = "first" }

// kick resource generator for rendering all shadow maps
{ resource_generator="shadow_mapping" profiling_scope="shadow mapping" }

// kick resource generator for assigning light sources to clustered shading structure
{ resource_generator="clustered_shading" profiling_scope="clustered shading" }

// special layer, only responsible for clearing hdr0, gbuffer2 and the depth_stencil_buffer
{ render_targets=["hdr0", "gbuffer2"] depth_stencil_target="depth_stencil_buffer" 
    clear_flags=["SURFACE", "DEPTH", "STENCIL"] profiling_scope="clears" }      

// if vr is supported kick a resource generator laying down a stencil mask to reject pixels outside of the lens shape
{ type="static_branch" platforms=["win"] render_settings={ vr_supported=true }
    pass = [
        { resource_generator="vr_mask" profiling_scope="vr_mask" }
    ]
}

// g-buffer layer, bulk of all materials renders into this
{ name="gbuffer" render_targets=["gbuffer0", "gbuffer1", "gbuffer2", "gbuffer3"] 
    depth_stencil_target="depth_stencil_buffer" sort="FRONT_BACK" profiling_scope="gbuffer" }

{ extension_insertion_point = "gbuffer" }

// linearize depth into a R32F surface
{ resource_generator="stabilize_and_linearize_depth" profiling_scope="linearize_depth" }

// layer for blending decals into the gbuffer0 and gbuffer1
{ name="decals" render_targets=["gbuffer0" "gbuffer1"] depth_stencil_target="depth_stencil_buffer" 
    profiling_scope="decal" sort="EXPLICIT" }

{ extension_insertion_point = "decals" }

// generate and merge motion vectors for non written pixels with motion vectors in gbuffer
{ type="static_branch" platforms=["win", "xb1", "ps4", "web", "linux"]
    pass = [
        { resource_generator="generate_motion_vectors" profiling_scope="motion vectors" }
    ]
}

// render localized reflection probes into hdr1
{ name="reflections" render_targets=["hdr1"] depth_stencil_target="depth_stencil_buffer" 
    sort="FRONT_BACK" profiling_scope="reflections probes" }

{ extension_insertion_point = "reflections" }

// kick resource generator for screen space reflections
{ type="static_branch" platforms=["win", "xb1", "ps4"]
    pass = [
        { resource_generator="ssr_reflections" profiling_scope="ssr" }
    ]
}

// kick resource generator for main scene lighting
{ resource_generator="lighting" profiling_scope="lighting" }
{ extension_insertion_point = "lighting" }

// layer for emissive materials
{ name="emissive" render_targets=["hdr0"] depth_stencil_target="depth_stencil_buffer" 
    sort="FRONT_BACK" profiling_scope="emissive" }

// kick debug visualization
{ type="static_branch" render_caps={ development=true }
    pass=[
        { resource_generator="debug_visualization" profiling_scope="debug_visualization" }
    ]
}

// kick resource generator for laying down fog 
{ resource_generator="fog" profiling_scope="fog" }

// layer for skydome rendering
{ name="skydome" render_targets=["hdr0"] depth_stencil_target="depth_stencil_buffer" 
    sort="BACK_FRONT" profiling_scope="skydome" }
{ extension_insertion_point = "skydome" }

// layer for transparent materials 
{ name="hdr_transparent" render_targets=["hdr0"] depth_stencil_target="depth_stencil_buffer" 
    sort="BACK_FRONT" profiling_scope="hdr_transparent" }
{ extension_insertion_point = "hdr_transparent" }

// kick resource generator for reading back any requested render targets / buffers to the CPU
{ resource_generator="stream_capture_buffers" profiling_scope="stream_capture" }

// kick resource generator for capturing reflection probes
{ type="static_branch" platform=["win"] render_caps={ development=true }
    pass = [
        { resource_generator="cubemap_capture" }
    ]
}

// layer for rendering object selections from the editor
{ type="static_branch" platforms=["win", "ps4", "xb1"]
    pass = [
        { type = "static_branch" render_settings={ selection_enabled=true }
            pass = [
                { name="selection" render_targets=["gbuffer0" "ldr1_dev_r"] 
                    depth_stencil_target="depth_stencil_buffer_selection" sort="BACK_FRONT" 
                    clear_flags=["SURFACE" "DEPTH"] profiling_scope="selection"}
            ]
        }
    ]
}

// kick resource generators for AA resolve and post processing
{ resource_generator="post_processing" profiling_scope="post_processing" }
{ extension_insertion_point = "post_processing" }

// layer for rendering LDR materials, primarily used for rendering HUD and debug rendering
{ name="transparent" render_targets=["output_target"] depth_stencil_target="stable_depth_stencil_buffer_alias" 
    sort="BACK_FRONT" profiling_scope="transparent" }

// kick resource generator for rendering shadow map debug overlay
{ type="static_branch" render_caps={ development=true }
    pass = [
        { resource_generator="debug_shadows" profiling_scope="debug_shadows" }
    ]
}

// kick resource generator for compositing left/right eye
{ type="static_branch" platforms=["win"] render_settings={ vr_supported=true }
    pass = [
        { resource_generator="vr_present" profiling_scope="present" }
    ]
}

{ extension_insertion_point = "last" }

So what we have above is a fairly standard breakdown of a rendered frame, if you have worked with real-time rendering before there shouldn’t be much surprises in there. Something that is kind of cool with having the frame flow in this representation and pairing that with the hot-reloading functionality of render_configs, is that it really encourages experimentations: move things around, comment stuff out, inject new resource generators, etc.

Let’s go through the frame in a bit more detail:

Extension insertion points

First of all there are a bunch of extension_insertion_point at various locations during the frame, these are used by render_config_extensions to be able to schedule work into an existing render_config. You could argue that an extensions system to the render_configs is a bit superfluous, and for an in-house game engine targeting a specific industry that might very well be the case. But for us the extension system allows building features a bit more modular, it also encourages sharing of various rendering features across teams.

Shadows

// kick resource generator for rendering all shadow maps
{ resource_generator="shadow_mapping" profiling_scope="shadow mapping" }

We start off by rendering shadow maps. As we want to handle shadow receiving on alpha blended geometry there’s no simple way to reuse our shadow maps by interleaving the rendering of them into the lighting code. Instead we simply gather all shadow casting lights, try to prioritize them based on screen coverage, intensity, etc. and then render all shadows into two shadow maps.

One shadow map is dedicated to handle a single directional light which uses a cascaded shadow map approach, rendering each cascade into a region of a larger shadow map atlas. The other shadow map is an atlas for all local light sources, such as spot and point lights (interpreted as 6 spot lights).

Clustered shading

// kick resource generator for assigning light sources to clustered shading structure
{ resource_generator="clustered_shading" profiling_scope="clustered shading" }

We separate local light sources into two kinds: “simple” and “custom”. Simple lights are either spot lights or point lights that don’t have a custom material graph assigned. Simple light sources, which tend to be the bulk of all visible light sources in a frame, get inserted into a clustered shading acceleration structure.

While simple lights will affect both opaque and transparent materials, custom lights will only affect opaque geometry as they run a more traditional deferred shading path. We will touch on the lighting a bit more soon.

Clearing & VR mask

// special layer, only responsible for clearing hdr0, gbuffer2 and the depth_stencil_buffer
{ render_targets=["hdr0", "gbuffer2"] depth_stencil_target="depth_stencil_buffer" 
    clear_flags=["SURFACE", "DEPTH", "STENCIL"] profiling_scope="clears" }      

// if vr is supported kick a resource generator laying down a stencil mask to reject pixels outside of the lens shape
{ type="static_branch" platforms=["win"] render_settings={ vr_supported=true }
    pass = [
        { resource_generator="vr_mask" profiling_scope="vr_mask" }
    ]
}

Here we use the layer system to record a bind and a clear for a few render targets into a RenderContext generated by the LayerManager.

Then, depending on if the vr_supported render setting is true or not we kick a resource generator that marks in the stencil buffer any pixels falling outside of the lens region. This resource generator only does something if the renderer is running in stereo mode. Also note that the branch above is a static_branch so if vr_supported is set to false the execution of the vr_mask resource generator will get eliminated completely during boot up of the renderer.

G-buffer

// g-buffer layer, bulk of all materials renders into this
{ name="gbuffer" render_targets=["gbuffer0", "gbuffer1", "gbuffer2", "gbuffer3"] 
    depth_stencil_target="depth_stencil_buffer" sort="FRONT_BACK" profiling_scope="gbuffer" }

{ extension_insertion_point = "gbuffer" }

// linearize depth into a R32F surface
{ resource_generator="stabilize_and_linearize_depth" profiling_scope="linearize_depth" }

// layer for blending decals into the gbuffer0 and gbuffer1
{ name="decals" render_targets=["gbuffer0" "gbuffer1"] depth_stencil_target="depth_stencil_buffer" 
    profiling_scope="decal" sort="EXPLICIT" }

{ extension_insertion_point = "decals" }

// generate and merge motion vectors for non written pixels with motion vectors in gbuffer
{ type="static_branch" platforms=["win", "xb1", "ps4", "web", "linux"]
    pass = [
        { resource_generator="generate_motion_vectors" profiling_scope="motion vectors" }
    ]
}

Next we lay down the gbuffer. We are using a fairly fat “floating” gbuffer representation. By floating I mean that we interpret the gbuffer channels differently depending on material. I won’t go into details of the gbuffer layout in this post but everything builds upon a standard metallic PBR material model, same as most modern engines runs today. We also stash high precision motion vectors to be able to do accurate reprojection for TAA, RGBM encoded irradiance from light maps (if present, else irradiance is looked up from an IBL probe), high precision normals, AO, etc. Things quickly add up, in the default configuration on PC we are looking at 192 bpp for the color targets (i.e not counting depth/stencil). The gbuffer layout could use some love, I think we should be able to shrink it somewhat without losing any features.

We then kick a resource generator called stabilize_and_linerize_depth, this resource generator does two things:

  1. It linearizes the depth buffer and stores the result in an R32F target using a fullscreen_pass.
  2. It does a hacky TAA resolve pass for depth in an attempt to remove some intersection flickering for materials rendering after TAA resolve. We call the output of this pass stable_depth and use it when rendering editor selections, gizmos, debug lines, etc. We also use this buffer during post processing for any effects that depends on depth (e.g. depth of field) as those runs after AA resolve.

After that we have another more minimalistic gbuffer layer for splatting deferred decals.

Last but not least we kick another resource generator that calculates per pixel velocity for any pixels that haven’t been rendered to during the gbuffer pass (i.e skydome).

Reflections & Lighting

// render localized reflection probes into hdr1
{ name="reflections" render_targets=["hdr1"] depth_stencil_target="depth_stencil_buffer" 
    sort="FRONT_BACK" profiling_scope="reflections probes" }

{ extension_insertion_point = "reflections" }

// kick resource generator for screen space reflections
{ type="static_branch" platforms=["win", "xb1", "ps4"]
    pass = [
        { resource_generator="ssr_reflections" profiling_scope="ssr" }
    ]
}

// kick resource generator for main scene lighting
{ resource_generator="lighting" profiling_scope="lighting" }
{ extension_insertion_point = "lighting" }

At this point we are fully done with the gbuffer population and are ready to do some lighting. We start by laying down the indirect specular / reflections into a separate buffer. We use a rather standard three-step fallback scheme for our reflections: screen-space reflections, falling back to localized parallax corrected pre-convoluted radiance cubemaps, falling back to a global pre-convoluted radiance cubemap.

The reflections layer is the target layer for all cubemap based reflections. We are naively rendering the cubemap reflections by treating each reflection probe as a light source with a custom material. These lights gets picked up by a resource generator performing traditional deferred shading - i.e it renders proxy volumes for each light. One thing that some people struggle to wrap their heads around is that the resource generator responsible for running the deferred shading modifier isn’t kicked until a few lines down (in the lighting resource generator). If you’ve paid attention in my previous posts this shouldn’t come as a surprise for you, as what we describe here is the GPU scheduling of a frame, nothing else.

When the reflection probes are laid down we move on and run a resource generator for doing Screen-Space Reflections. As SSR typically runs in half-res we store the result in a separate render target.

We then finally kick the lighting resource generator, which is responsible for the following:

  1. Build a screen space mask for sun shadows, this is done by running multiple fullscreen_passes. The fullscreen_passes transform the pixels into cascaded shadow map space and perform PCF. Stencil culling makes sure the shader only runs for pixels within a certain cascade.
  2. SSAO with a bunch of different quality settings.
  3. A fullscreen pass we refer to as the “global lighting” pass. This is the pass that does most of the heavy lifting when it comes to the lighting. It handles mixing SSR with probe reflections, mixing of SSAO with material AO, lighting from all simple lights looked up from the clustered shading structure as well as calculates sun lighting masked with the result from sun shadow mask (step 1).
  4. Run a traditional deferred shading modifier for all light sources that has a material graph assigned. If the shader doesn’t target a specific layer the lights proxy volume will be rendered at this point, else it will be scheduled to render into whatever layer the shader has specified.

At this point we have a fully lit HDR output for all of our opaque materials.

Various stuff

// layer for emissive materials
{ name="emissive" render_targets=["hdr0"] depth_stencil_target="depth_stencil_buffer" 
    sort="FRONT_BACK" profiling_scope="emissive" }

// kick debug visualization
{ type="static_branch" render_caps={ development=true }
    pass=[
        { resource_generator="debug_visualization" profiling_scope="debug_visualization" }
    ]
}

// kick resource generator for laying down fog 
{ resource_generator="fog" profiling_scope="fog" }

// layer for skydome rendering
{ name="skydome" render_targets=["hdr0"] depth_stencil_target="depth_stencil_buffer" 
    sort="BACK_FRONT" profiling_scope="skydome" }
{ extension_insertion_point = "skydome" }

// layer for transparent materials 
{ name="hdr_transparent" render_targets=["hdr0"] depth_stencil_target="depth_stencil_buffer" 
    sort="BACK_FRONT" profiling_scope="hdr_transparent" }
{ extension_insertion_point = "hdr_transparent" }

// kick resource generator for reading back any requested render targets / buffers to the CPU
{ resource_generator="stream_capture_buffers" profiling_scope="stream_capture" }

// kick resource generator for capturing reflection probes
{ type="static_branch" platform=["win"] render_caps={ development=true }
    pass = [
        { resource_generator="cubemap_capture" }
    ]
}

// layer for rendering object selections from the editor
{ type="static_branch" platforms=["win", "ps4", "xb1"]
    pass = [
        { type = "static_branch" render_settings={ selection_enabled=true }
            pass = [
                { name="selection" render_targets=["gbuffer0" "ldr1_dev_r"] 
                    depth_stencil_target="depth_stencil_buffer_selection" sort="BACK_FRONT" 
                    clear_flags=["SURFACE" "DEPTH"] profiling_scope="selection"}
            ]
        }
    ]
}

Next follows a bunch of layers for doing various stuff, most of this is straightforward:

  • emissive - Layer for adding any emissive material influences to the light accumulation target (hdr0)
  • debug_visualization - Kick of a resource generator for doing debug rendering. When debug rendering is enabled, the post processing pipe is disabled so we can render straight to the output target / back buffer here. Note: This doesn’t need to be scheduled exactly here, it could be moved later down the pipe.
  • fog - Kick of a resource generator for blending fog into the accumulation target.
  • skydome - Layer for rendering anything skydome related.
  • hdr_transparent - Layer for rendering transparent materials, traditional forward shading using the clustered shading acceleration structure for lighting. VFX with blending usually also goes into this layer.
  • stream_capture_buffer - Arbitrary location for capturing various render targets and dumping them into system memory.
  • cubemap_capture - Capturing point for reflection cubemap probes.
  • selection - Layer for rendering selection outlines.

So basically a bunch of miscellaneous stuff that needs to happen before we enter post processing…

Post Processing

// kick resource generators for AA resolve and post processing
{ resource_generator="post_processing" profiling_scope="post_processing" }
{ extension_insertion_point = "post_processing" }

Up until this point we’ve been in linear color space accumulating lighting into a 4xf16 render target (hdr0). Now its time to take that buffer and push it through the post processing resource generator.

The post processing pipe in the Stingray Renderer does:

  1. Temporal AA resolve
  2. Depth of Field
  3. Motion Blur
  4. Lens Effects (chromatic aberration, distortion)
  5. Bloom
  6. Auto exposure
  7. Scene Combine (exposure, tone map, sRGB, LUT color grading)
  8. Debug rendering

All steps of the post processing pipe can dynamically be enabled/disabled (not entirely true, we will always have to run some variation of step 7 as we need to output our result to the back buffer).

Final touches

// layer for rendering LDR materials, primarily used for rendering HUD and debug rendering
{ name="transparent" render_targets=["output_target"] depth_stencil_target="stable_depth_stencil_buffer_alias" 
    sort="BACK_FRONT" profiling_scope="transparent" }

// kick resource generator for rendering shadow map debug overlay
{ type="static_branch" render_caps={ development=true }
    pass = [
        { resource_generator="debug_shadows" profiling_scope="debug_shadows" }
    ]
}

// kick resource generator for compositing left/right eye
{ type="static_branch" platforms=["win"] render_settings={ vr_supported=true }
    pass = [
        { resource_generator="vr_present" profiling_scope="present" }
    ]
}

Before we present we allow rendering of unlit geometry in LDR (mainly used for HUDs and debug rendering), potentially do some more debug rendering and if we’re in VR mode we kick a resource generator that handles left/right eye combining (if needed).

That’s it - a very high-level breakdown of a rendered frame when running Stingray with the default “Stingray Renderer” render_config file.

Mini Renderer

We also have a second rendering pipe that we ship with Stingray called the “Mini Renderer” - mini as in minimalistic. It is not as broadly used as the Stingray Renderer so I won’t walk you through it, just wanted to mention it’s there and say a few words about it.

The main design goal behind the mini renderer was to build a rendering pipe with as little overhead from advanced lighting effects and post processing as possible. It’s primarily used for doing mobile VR rendering. High-resolution, high-performance rendering on mobile devices is hard! You pretty much need to avoid all kinds of fullscreen effects to hit target frame rate. Therefore the mini renderer has a very limited feature set:

  • It’s a forward renderer. While it’s capable of doing per pixel lighting through clustered shading it rarely gets used, instead most applications tend to bake their lighting completely or run with only a single directional light source.
  • No post processing.
  • While all lighting is done in linear color space we don’t store anything in HDR, instead we expose, tonemap and output sRGB directly into an LDR target (usually directly to the back buffer).

The mini_renderer.render_config file is ~400 lines, i.e. less than 1/3 of the stingray renderer. It is still in a somewhat experimental state but is the fastest way to get up and running doing mobile VR. I also feel that it makes sense for us to ship an example of a more lightweight rendering pipe; it is simpler to follow than the render_config for the full stingray renderer, and it makes it easy to grasp the benefits of data-driven rendering compared to a more static hard-coded rendering pipe (especially if you don’t have source access to the full engine as then the hard-coded rendering pipe would likely be a complete black box for the user).

Wrap up

I realize that some of you might have hoped for a more complete walkthrough of the various lighting and post processing techniques we use in the Stingray renderer. Unfortunately that would have become a very long post and also it feels a bit out of context as my goal with this blog series has been to focus on the architecture of the stingray rendering pipe rather than specific rendering techniques. Most of the techniques we use can probably be considered “industry standard” within real-time rendering nowadays. If you are interested in learning more there are lots of excellent information available, to name a few:

In the next and final post of this series we will take a look at the shader and material system we have in Stingray.

103 comments:

  1. I know it is not related to the post in itself, but I couldn't help but wonder: is there a place where you describe how your Hashset is implemented? I saw the code of the Bitsquid foundational library, but I mean a more conceptual description. I think it would be pretty useful and important, since you seem to have tried to implement a kind of hash table that is laid contiguously in memory (which is non trivial to find out there). Thanks anyways!

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Stingray's information driven engineering and adaptability have helped us fabricate a wide arrangement of games, and fast emphasis times for both code and substance makers has supported our efficiency essentially. The motor has been a key achievement factor for us since we're ready to create top-notch games in an abbreviated time span. Cheap assignment help UK

      Delete
  2. Error code 0xc004f050 alludes to an issue with enacting Windows key. The issue shows up when you attempt to enact a duplicate of Windows by utilizing Windows Activation wizard. This happens when the framework winds up unsteady and basic framework documents begin missing. Despite the fact that Windows 10 is a free update for Windows 7/Windows 8/Windows 8.1 clients, the enactment blunder is as yet an issue. On the off chance that you previously had Windows 7/Windows 8/Windows 8.1 actuated and completed an overhaul effectively, at that point there ought to be no issue. This Problem Occurs just when you complete a clean introduce.
    Visit for more:- windows 10 activation error code 0xc004f050

    ReplyDelete
  3. Nice one! This post is amazing and very important. Webroot geek squad Thanks for sharing.

    ReplyDelete
  4. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  5. Stingray Renderer from Autodesk At the Game Developers Conference (GDC) Europe 2015, Autodesk reported that its new Stingray game motor, Stingray Renderer Walkthrough Welcome To streamline information moving inside the Autodesk advancement groups.

    Regards,
    Cheap Reliable Essay Writing Service | 6$ Essay

    ReplyDelete
  6. Autodesk is escaping the game-motor business. The organization will screen its Stingray item, I have Stingray shader in Maya and might want to see it in Arnold.

    Low Price Essay Writing Service USA | 6$ Essay.

    ReplyDelete
  7. thanks for sharing this information with us. I am just surfing on internet and suddenly found this blog. Very Nice blog. Please have a look on my blog which is based on travel delta airlines phone number

    ReplyDelete
  8. When you return home, My Silver Service will be right there to transport you home keeping your whole family safe and sound.
    Maxi Taxi

    ReplyDelete
  9. Accounting paper writing services are essential and they have become very popular for those seeking accounting coursework writing services since most of them seek Accounting Writing Services.

    ReplyDelete
  10. We have over 500 experts essay writers, ready and waiting to help you improve your writing skills.

    Online Classes

    ReplyDelete
  11. She exceeds my expectations, not only the article, I like the title too! I wish her success and also recommend her for your creative writing.
    Animator in Fiverr

    ReplyDelete
  12. Our service is very fast and pure, so call us any time of day and night and get an immediate response.
    Assignment Writing UK

    ReplyDelete
  13. They were extremely proficient and truly worked admirably planning an inventive and connecting with logo! I was extremely satisfied with the result. They were mindful and finished their work when they said they would!
    Logo Design Services

    ReplyDelete
  14. WOW! I Love it...
    and i thing thats good for you >>


    LUCKY NUMBER Thank you!

    ReplyDelete
  15. Thank you so much for this post I felt really great after reading it
    AOL Customer Service Chat

    ReplyDelete
  16. Thanks for providing great informatic and looking beautiful blog, really nice required information & the things i never imagined and i would request, write more blog and blog posts like that for us.

    ReplyDelete
  17. Awesome post! Your post is well-written. It is really an informative post for me. Thank you for giving me this information.
    Nowadays, Verizon's email service has many users worldwide. Verizon Email is a well-known and most popular mail platform. But, At a few days, Verizon users have been dealing with Reset Verizon Email Password issues. There may be several reasons when you are unable to sign in to your Verizon account, or you may have forgotten your Verizon email password. If you have no idea so you may be concerned about our Error Code experts.

    ReplyDelete
  18. Brilliant Information. Thank you for sharing.
    If you are using Windows 10, it has already uploaded many caches or junk files to your device. Because of this, Avast Antivirus does not work properly or closes some of your programs. Then, if you want to Uninstall Avast Antivirus in Windows 10 in your device.
    You can visit our blog and read our guidelines for installing Avast Antivirus in Windows 10 and resolve issues on your own.

    ReplyDelete
  19. click on one of the sites below to get a variety of the best tips and tricks in life.

    data togel china 2020

    ReplyDelete
  20. I read your post. It really nice information. Thanks for giving me this information.
    Akshi Engineers Pvt. Ltd. is well-known industry for Drivers & Automation Manufacturers, Suppliers & Exporters as per client's requirements in India. We provide tailored solutions for a wide range of industries, including electric drivers and automation, with the goal of revolutionizing energy conservation efforts by introducing reputable corporations' revolutionary power-saving products.

    ReplyDelete
  21. You should take part in a contest for one of the highest quality sites on the web.
    I’m going to recommend this website! 메이저사이트

    ReplyDelete
  22. Magnificent beat ! I wish to apprentice while you amend your web site, how could i subscribe for a blog web site?
    The account aided me a acceptable deal. 온라인경마

    ReplyDelete
  23. I am really impressed with your blog article, such great & useful information you mentioned here. I have read all your posts and all are very informative. Thanks for sharing and keep it up like this. 카지노사이트

    ReplyDelete
  24. Hi there! I could have sworn I’ve been to this site before but after browsing through some of the articles I realized it’s new to me.
    Nonetheless, I’m certainly happy I came across it and I’ll be bookmarking it
    and checking back regularly! 메이저사이트

    ReplyDelete
  25. This website and I conceive this internet site is really informative ! Keep on putting up! 야동비즈

    ReplyDelete
  26. wow, its a incredible information. thanks for sharing. i think this artcile wourld be nice if you put some image to help describing the topic 야동

    ReplyDelete
  27. I am a fan of reading to add insight to information. Thank you for this great blog. this is here, the few months I am visiting and following you. What I really like about you is that your writing style. 야동

    ReplyDelete
  28. I found your blog while I was webs writing to find the above information. Your writing has helped me a lot. I'll write a nice post by quoting your post.

    중국야동넷

    ReplyDelete
  29. Thanks For Sharing Such An Interesting Article, It Is Really Worthy To Read. I Have Subscribed To You And From Now On I'll Check Your Profile Daily For Interesting Stuffs.
    국산야동

    ReplyDelete
  30. SO good indeed! Glad to have found your page!! This is such great work!! Interesting to read for sure!! 파친코

    ReplyDelete
  31. Thank you. I authentically greeting your way for writing an article. I safe as a majority loved it to my bookmark website sheet list and will checking rear quite than later. Share your thoughts.

    슬롯머신777사이트

    ReplyDelete
  32. I must say you’ve done a very good job with this. Also, the blog loads extremely quick for me on Chrome. Superb Blog! 블랙잭사이트


    ReplyDelete
  33. Great blog! Do you have any tips for aspiring writers? I’m hoping to start my own blog soon but I’m a little lost on everything.

    카지노사이트가이드

    ReplyDelete
  34. Awesome Informaation. Thanks for sharing with us.
    Are you looking a one-stop solution for Jio Tower Near Me? Jio Digital Tower is India’s telecommunication company. Basically, it offers telecommunications services and products. You must install a jio tower in your area if you want proper network coverage. Call us for jio tower installation.

    ReplyDelete
  35. I appreciate, result in I discovered exactly what I was looking for many year and Now my search is end after reading your blogs content 토토

    ReplyDelete
  36. Wow! This can be one particular of the most beneficial blogs We have ever arrive across on this subject.

    텍사스홀덤사이트

    ReplyDelete
  37. Very interesting subject, appreciate it for posting.
    click me here카지노

    yang

    ReplyDelete
  38. If you aren’t using SEO Software then you will know the amount of work load involved in creating accounts, confirming emails and submitting your contents to thousands of websites.
    With THIS SOFTWARE the link submission process will be the easiest task and completely automated, you will be able to build unlimited number of links and increase traffic to your websites which will lead to a higher number of customers and much more sales for you
    카지노사이트

    wep.

    ReplyDelete
  39. Thanks for one’s marvelous posting! I seriously enjoyed reading it, you may be a
    great author.I will remember to bookmark your blog and definitely will come back later in life.
    I want to encourage you continue your great writing, have a nice
    afternoon!Click Me Here 슬롯사이트


    1YANGSKIE

    ReplyDelete
  40. Thank you for sharing this information. I read your blog and I can't stop my self to read your full blog. Again Thanks and Best of luck to your next Blog in future.
    온라인카지노

    ReplyDelete
  41. I do agree with all of the ideas you’ve presented in your post.
    스포츠토토

    ReplyDelete
  42. Nice one! Thank you for sharing this post. Your blog posts are more interesting and impressive.
    바카라사이트

    ReplyDelete
  43. Thanks for sharing excellent information. Your web site is very cool. I am impressed by the details that you've on this site. 홀덤

    ReplyDelete
  44. I was reading some of your articles on this website and I conceive this web site is very instructive! Retain putting up.

    파칭코사이트인포

    ReplyDelete
  45. Greetings! Very helpful advice on this article! It is the little changes that make the biggest changes. Thanks a lot for sharing! 호텔카지노

    ReplyDelete
  46. Thanks for sharing excellent informations. Your web site is very cool. I am impressed by the details that you’ve on this site. 야설
    Feel free to visit my blog :
    야설

    ReplyDelete
  47. Very good information. Lucky me I recently found your website by accident I have book marked it for later!
    일본야동
    Feel free to visit my blog : 일본야동

    ReplyDelete
  48. This blog is very informative the stuff you provide I really enjoyed reading 국산야동
    Feel free to visit my blog : 국산야동

    ReplyDelete
  49. 먹튀검증 Just wish to say your article is as amazing. The clarity to your publish is simply spectacular and i could think you are a professional in this subject. Fine with your permission let me to grab your feed to stay up to date with impending post. Thanks one million and please keep up the enjoyable work.


    ReplyDelete
  50. 토토365프로 I was impressed by the good writing.Thank you.
    If you want to know the social graph game, come here!

    Great article, totally what I was looking for.

    ReplyDelete
  51. Yay google is my queen assisted me to find this great web site! 온라인카지노사이트

    ReplyDelete
  52. If some one wants expert view on the topic of blogging
    and site-building then i recommend him/her to go to see this web site,
    Keep up the good work. 온라인카지노

    ReplyDelete
  53. When did you start writing articles related to ? To write a post by reinterpreting the 메이저안전놀이터 I used to know is amazing. I want to talk more closely about , can you give me a message?

    ReplyDelete
  54. I’m gone to inform my little brother, that he should also pay a quick visit this blog on regular basis to obtain updated from most recent
    news.스포츠토토

    ReplyDelete
  55. Attractive portion of content. I simply stumbled upon your website and in accession capital to claim that I get in fact loved account your blog post Feel free to visit my website; 카지노사이트

    ReplyDelete
  56. I quite like reading an article that can make men and women think. Also, thanks for allowing me to comment! Feel free to visit my website; 카지노사이트

    ReplyDelete
  57. Hey there, I think your website might be having browser compatibility issues. When I look at your website in Safari, it looks fine but when opening in Internet Explorer, it has some overlapping. I just wanted to give you a quick heads up! Other then that, awesome blog! web site. Feel free to visit my website; 카지노사이트

    ReplyDelete
  58. There is an inborn curiosity about the Love Marriage Astrology, and Astrology can do it for you. Click here to know "date of birth compatibility for marriage". You can also book a direct appointment to bail out of all the issues.

    ReplyDelete
  59. Genuine Information. It is really helpful for me. Thanks for sharing with us. Keep sharing again.
    AOL Mail is one of the leading web-mail service platforms for interfaces that allow users to stay connected with their peers through best email convenience. Sometimes, when you face your AOL Mail Not Working On iPhone, you can contact our experts. They will patiently guide you with top-notch solutions.

    ReplyDelete
  60. Mmm.. great to be here in your article or post, whatever, I figure I ought to likewise buckle down for my own site like I see some great and refreshed working in your site.카지노사이트프로

    ReplyDelete
  61. A good blog always comes-up with new and exciting information and while reading I have feel that this blog is really have all those quality that qualify a blog to be a one.바카라사이트

    ReplyDelete
  62. Hello there! Nice article!!! But anyways here’s one of the trusted online baccarat site we can offer you so many promo and event everyday!! Good luck!!! 토토사이트

    ReplyDelete
  63. Thank you for sharing your truth! I have so much more that I would like to say but I don't think its necessary. Just visit my site: 카지노사이트

    ReplyDelete
  64. Thanks for sharing this marvelous post. I m very pleased to read this article.
    송송넷

    ReplyDelete
  65. Hоw dо ореn-ѕоurсе рrоduсtіvіtу ѕuіtеѕ compare tо MS Office - аnd dоеѕ іt mаkе ѕеnѕе fоr уоur оrgаnіzаtіоn tо сhооѕе frее соmmunіtу software rаthеr thаn Microsoft's commercially licensed оffеrіng
    일본경마

    magosucowep

    ReplyDelete
  66. It’s really nice and meaningful. It’s really cool blog. Thanks for sharing and please update some more information here. Have you been looking for the Zelle customer service support, than you have arrived at the right destination. At this destination you will find the customer service help from zelle, and if you found some issues in using zelle, then you can resolve them by just a click on the given link.

    ReplyDelete
  67. You have a interesting site! Find it more interesting because of the content. We can offer you more, By clicking the link below and learned more: 토토사이트

    ReplyDelete
  68. Wow this is nice page. Hoping to see more of this. In case you are looking for something interesting, Just follow the link below: 카지노사이트

    ReplyDelete
  69. Wow!! Thank you for sharing this post. Having a hard time looking for good and trusted site? I can offer you more and learn more by clicking the link below: 파워볼사이트

    ReplyDelete
  70. Your blog is great!!! Good content!! I would recommend this to my friends. But are you looking for online casino site? Click the link below: 바카라사이트

    ReplyDelete
  71. I simply want to say I’m new to blogs and really liked you’re blog. More than likely I’m planning to bookmark your blog post . 온라인카지노

    ReplyDelete
  72. Accounting is a subject that demands much more than subject knowledge like marketing mathematics statistics of the few. So even if you are very attentive in your class, chances are you might have missed any of the lectures on the above subjects, and thus it is becoming very challenging for you to complete those accounting assignments. It is okay to look for accounting homework assignments online as they can help you fight the stress you feel due to the submission. Finding an accounting assignment help is not easy. Still, with a little due diligence, you are sure to get a finished copy that is authentically made for you by an accounting expert, this way; you will have a better chance of building the things you love to accomplish.

    ReplyDelete
  73. The Indian education system is one of the most complex in the world. There are so many different types of exams, from state to national, that it can be difficult to keep track of what you need to do and when. Whether you're a student looking ahead at the next few years or a parent wondering how to get your child into a good school, this article will give you some insight into some of the toughest exams in India 2022.

    ReplyDelete
  74. I read your post. It is amazing and helpful information for me. Thanks for sharing with everyone. I am Sofi Vergara, I am working as a tech expert at Yahoo support. I have 3 years of experience in this field. If you have any problems related to Yahoo Help etc, then please contact me for instant help related to Yahoo email problems.

    ReplyDelete
  75. I read your post. It is amazing and helpful information for me. Are you looking for a solution How to Delete Cache App Activity? Cash App Activity is a record of all transaction activity from sending or receiving the money to your contacts. To delete your cache app activity, you have it in the right place. If you have any questions regarding deleting Cash App transaction history, please contact us at our Cash App customer service.

    ReplyDelete
  76. Thank you for posting such a great article. Keep it up mate.

    Shaman Yojna 2021

    ReplyDelete
  77. Thank you for posting such a great article. Keep it up mate.

    Jharkhand Johar Yojana 2021

    ReplyDelete
  78. I like the helpful info you provide in your articles.
    I will bookmark your blog and check again here regularly. I'm quite certain I'll learn many new stuff right here!
    Best of luck for the next! 룰렛

    ReplyDelete
  79. This is the right site for everyone who would like to find out about this topic. 카지노사이트프로

    ReplyDelete
  80. Its an amazing website, really enjoyed your articles. Helpful and interesting too. 바카라사이트

    ReplyDelete
  81. I am very much delighted with your information. 카지노

    ReplyDelete
  82. Youre so right. Im there with you. Your weblog is definitely worth a read if anyone comes throughout it. Im lucky I did because now Ive received a whole new view of this. 메이저사이트

    ReplyDelete
  83. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete